Bibliography

 

Primary sources

Al-Tabari, The History of al-Tabari, Volume XII, The Battle of al-Qadisiyah and the Conquest of Syria and Palestine A.D 635-637/ A.H. 14-15. Translated and annotated by Yohanan Friedmann, New York: State University of New York Press, 1992.

Al-Tabari, The History of Al-Tabari, Volume VIII, The Victory of Islam Muhammad at Medina, A.D. 626-630/ A. H. 5-8, Translated by Michael Fishbein, New York: State University of New York Press, 1997.

Al-Tabari, The History of al-Tabari: The First Civil War, Volume XVII, From the Battle of Siffin to the Death of Ali, A.D. 656-661/ A.H. 36-40,  translated by G.R. Hawting, New York: State University of New York, 1996.

Al-Tabari, The History of al-Tabari, Volume XIV, The Conquest of Iran, translated and annotated by G. Rex Smith, New York: State University of New York, 1994.

Ibn Ishak, The Life of Mohammad, (Sirat Rasul Allah) Ibn Hisham ed., A. Guillaume, translator, Lahore: Oxford University  Press, Pakistan branch, 1967

Secondary Sources

Boojamra, John, “Christianity in Greater Syria After Islam,” St. Vladimir’s Theological Quarterly,1991,  Vol. 35., Issue 2-3, pp. 223-238.

Encyclopedia of Islam. CD Edition v.1.1

Kennedy, Hugh, The Prophet and the Age of the Caliphates: The Islamic Near East From the Sixth to the Eleventh Century, London and New York: Longman, 1986.

Lings, Martin,  Mohammad :His Life Based on the Earliest Sources,   Rochester, Vermont: Inner Traditions International, 1983.

Stillman, Norman,  The Jews of Arab Lands: A History and Source book, Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society of America, 1979.

Tilly, Charles, After Empire: Multiethnic Societies and Nation-Building, The Soviet Union and the Russian, Ottoman, and Hapsburg Empires , Boulder: Westview Press, 1997.p. 2.

 

 

 

 

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